(Tichodroma muraria)
Its general distribution is in Southern Europe, Turkey, Iran, Central Asia, Pakistan and China.
Miroslav Slavchev

Distribution of the species

Its general distribution is in Southern Europe, Turkey, Iran, Central Asia, Pakistan and China. In Bulgaria it is a permanent species, found in the mid-mountain to high mountain belt of the mountains Rila, Pirin, Central Stara Planina, Western Rhodopes, Slavyanka. Separate pairs in lower rocky areas have also been identified – Iskar Gorge, Vratsa Mountain, the gorge of the Erma River, the Kresna Gorge, the Provadia plateau.

Description of the species (biological and ecological features)

The Wallcreeper in Bulgaria, reaches dimensions of 17 cm. The plumage is gray, the wings and shoulders are red with white spots on the feathers, the tail s black with a whitish stripe on the top. In females, the throat is white and the black spot is only up to the front of the chest. The juveniles have predominantly gray plumage and red wings.

They nest in deep and well-protected shelters on sheer cliffs, on the ceiling of large cave entrances and less often in the walls of buildings. Their breeding season begins in late April-May. The female lays 3 to 6 eggs with dark patterns and their incubation lasts for 14 days. They feed on insects.

They inhabit vertical rock massifs in the high parts of the mountains, extensive rock complexes in the middle mountain belt. During the autumn-winter period it makes vertical migrations and wanderings to low-lying rocky areas in which it does not nest.

Conservation status


Conservation state

In the Red Book of Bulgaria, the Wallcreeper is included under the category “Vulnerable” (VU) species, as well as included in Annex 3 of the Biodiversity Act (BDA).

This species is included in the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) – with the category “Least Concern” (LC).


*Note: For the description of birds is used information from: Golemanski, V. & al. (eds). 2015. Red Data Book of the Republic of Bulgaria. Vol. 2. Animals. BAS & MoEW, Sofia [English ed.: ISBN 978-954-9746-22-8 (IBER – BAS), 978-954-8497-18-3 (MoEW)]; Michev T., D. Simeonov, L. Profirov. 2012. Birds of the Balkan Peninsula. Ecotan, Sofia, 300 pp; the website of the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature).