European robin

(Erithacus rubecula)
It lives all year round in Paggaio, but its populations are much larger in winter, when birds coming from the north are added.
Sophia Siggiridou_Kostas Vidakis, MSc

Distribution of the species

Common resident in Paggaio. The local breeding population is smaller than the 2% of the national population (estimated at 210,000–360,000 pairs). The conservation status of the local population, which is not isolated within its wider distribution range, is considered from good to excellent. It is found from the lowest altitudes of the agroforestry areas to the beech forests, usually in places with undergrowth of shrubs and close to ecotones. Frequent visitor even within settlements, in places with trees and shrubs, especially during the winter.

Description of the species (biological and ecological features)

Small bird with thin and long legs. His head and eyes also look big. Upperparts brown, belly white, with orange-red forehead, area around the eyes, neck and breast. Nervous, it sits, then suddenly moves and sits down again. The male is strongly territorial and very aggressive towards other males during the breeding season, it has been recorded to attack even his reflection. It is attracted to human activities, such as gardening, but also activities of other animals, such as wild boars and moles, which dig the soil and reveal favorite species of prey. Vocal bird with melodious song and rich repertoire. The only species in Europe in which both sexes maintain individual territories and sing throughout the winter.

It lives all year round in Paggaio, but its populations are much larger in winter, when birds coming from the north are added. It is basically a woodland bird, preferring broadleaved and mixed broadleaved-coniferous forests. The presence of a significant amount of bushy understory and clearings is necessary. Prefers wet and shady areas, close to water. In winter it is common everywhere, especially in olive groves, even in city parks. It nests almost everywhere, in tree recesses, on steep banks, between roots, on the ground or at a low height. Raises 2 or 3 broods each year. It seeks its food on the ground or in bushes and on the lower branches of trees. It feeds on insects and other arthropods, snails and earthworms. In winter it consumes fruits, including large quantities of olives.

It does not face significant pressures. The main threat for the species could be severe winters that might lead to a large reduction in its population. Poaching could also be a significant threat for the species.

Conservation status

Least Concern.

Conservation state

Protected under the Bern (Appendix II) and Bonn Conventions (Appendix II). Listed as Least Concern in Greece and in Europe, by the Greek Red Data Book and the IUCN correspondingly. Not included in a SPEC category (European species of conservation concern) by BirdLife International.